Chapter 24- Ecosystem
Ecosystem is defined as the natural functional egological unit which
comprising of living organisms interect among themselves and also
with the surroundings physical
There are two basic catagories of ecosystem, namely Terrestrail and
The ecosystem which is found only on landform is known as
Terrestrial ecosystem. Forest, grasslend, desert etc are terrestrial
The ecosystem which is found only in a body of water is known as
Aquatic ecosystem. Ponds, lake, river etc etc are aquatic
FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANTS AND
The ecosystem is formed of two components, namely biotic like
producer, consumer, decomposers
and abotic factors like soil, water, heat, light, etc.
It is defined as any living components that shapes its
environment.It includes all the living organisms
. r. Biotic factors refer to
ecosystem which include producers, consumers and decomposers. Biotic
factors are classified as follows:
The examples make you understand deeply about this factors:
They are the living beings who can prepare their own food.
with green pigments are producers. They are also known as
Consumer are the living beings which depend on producers
food. On the basis of food they obtain, they are classified
Primary consumers, Secondary consumers and tertiary
Primary consumers are herbivores and they depend
for food. Example of primary consumers are cow, buffalo,
Secondary consumers directly depends upon primary
for food . They are
Example: cat, fox, frog etc.
Consumers depends upon
and secondary consumers for food.
These living beings are physically developed and strong.
are whale, crocodile etc. Animals like primary and
consumers are carnivores or omnivores.
Microorganisms like bacteria and fungi present in soil help
dead bodies and convert into small particles. Such
are absorbed by root of plants. Plants obtain essential
soil. Decomposers help in maintaining balanced ecosystem.
i) Forest ecosystem
Producer = tree,grass
Primary Consumer = Deer,buffalo
Secondary Consumer = Fox
Tertiary Consumer = Tiger
ii) Pond ecosystem
Producer = algae
Primary Consumer = small fishes, larva of mosquito
Secondary Consumer = Frog, Big fishes
Tertiary Consumer = snake
It is defined as the non-living substances and
physical parts of the environment, that helps for the circulation of
the ecosystem properly. It balances the ecosystem.
They do play an important role in supporting life, or biotic factors
all around the world.
It includes the physical conditions of environment which is
for growth, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms. Those
Why these factors affect ecosystem?
Relationship Between Producer Consumer and Decomposer
The producer, consumer and
decomposers are closely related with each others.Producers make
their own food. They do not have to obtain energy
from other organisms. They obtain their energy from the sun and make
food with that energy through the process of
photosynthesis.Producers are eaten (consumed) by
consumers(the herbivores or primary consumers), when either of them
die , they are consumed by
decomposers(converted into simpler form).Likewise, when they are
mixed into the soil
they are absorved by the green plants for grownth and reproduction.
And the phenomena occours continously.
For example: Sun → Grass → Cow → Lion → Fungi
→ Soil → Grass .....so on
Try out with more examples.
Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example,
plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some
animals eat other animals.
For an ecosystem to work there has to be a flow of energy within it.
The organisms of the ecosystem need energy in the form of food.
The ultimate source of this energy is the sun. Producers like green
plants trap solar energy and convert it into the chemical energy of
food. When a primary consumer eats the producer, a part of this
energy is passed on to it.
A food chain in an ecosystem is a process of transfer of
food energy from producer to primary consumer, secondary
called as food chain.
Examples: Grass → Deer , Musk → Tiger
Interrelation between food is known
as food chain. Living organisms obtain
their nutritious factors from food
chain. The inter linkage of many food
chain forms an integrated network.
This is called as food web.
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