In science, the work is said to be done only when a force produces
The following conditions are required to be satisfied for work to be
done on a body:
External force acting on the body.
Displacement produced on the body.
Work is said to be done when an object covers some distance along the
direction of force.
On pull and push, force performs some work. Mathematically, work is the
product of force applied to an object and displacement produced on it.
I.e. work is the scalar product of two vectors and is a scalar quantity.
And W= f.d if object moves along the direction of force. The work done
is zero if the displacement is zero or the displacement produced is
perpendicular to the direction of applied force.
Unit of Work: W = f . d = N.m = joule
SI unit of work is Joule(j).
CGS unit of work id Erg.
1 J = 1 Nm
One joule work is defined as the amount of work done, when one
Newton force produces one metre displacement on a body.
If 1 dyne force is applied on an object to displace through the
distance of 1 cm in the direction of force applied, the work done is
said to be one Erg.
Work is done against two forces:
Work is done against the gravity.
Work is done against the friction.
i. Work done against gravity:
When a body of mass m is lifted up to a height h, force applied to the body is
F = mass × acceleration due to gravity
F = m g
Work-done = Force × displacement
Work-done = F.h
W = mgh
ii. Work done against Friction:
When a body moves on another body in a horizontal plane, there exists a force
in the opposite direction of motion and this force is called friction.
Frictional force acts tangential to the surface of contact.
To produce motion on a body, work should be done against friction. It is given
by the scalar product of force and displacement.
Workdone = force × displacement
W = f.d
Energy is defined as the capacity of doing work. The SI unit of energy is
joule and CGS unit is Erg.
Relationship between Joule and Erg:
1 joule = 1 Nm
1 joule = 1 kg 1 m 1 m/s2
107 dyne cm
Different forms of energy:
Some common forms of energy present around us are:
Nuclear Energy (Atomic energy)
Transformation of energy: The process of conversion of energy from one form to another by means of a
device is called transformation of energy. Classical principle of conservation of energy : It states that "Energy
neither be created nor be destroyed but can be transferred from one form to
Power is defined as the rate of doing work or rate of energy
transformed. Formula: Power = work done / time = energy transformed / time
P = W / t SI unit of Power
Power = W / t = joule / second = J/s = Watt(w)
1 watt = 1 Joule / 1 second What is one watt ?
One watt is the power of a device that can do 1 joule work in 1 second.
Other Units of Power:
1 HP = 746 watt and is nearly equals to 750 watt
1 KW = 1000 watt
1 MW = 106 watt
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